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It is hard to believe but surgery is one of the most ancient branches of medicine. Pursuant to archaeological excavations, 6000 years BC were accomplished such surgical manipulations as removal of stones from the bladder, amputation and trepanation of the skull. But the first mention of surgical equipment is dated back to 1500 years BC. However, the contemporary look of operating rooms and surgeries’ attributes appeared in the late nineteenth century, influenced by the invention of antiseptics and anesthesiology.
Surgical operation is a mechanical action on organs and tissues which usually accompanied by dissection of viscera, exposure of the body for the intention of performing on it therapeutic or detection procedures. All surgical procedures can be split into two groups: bloody and bloodless. The bloody operation implies incision of the integument of the body. Via this wound the surgery expert gains access to pathological organs. To bloodless manipulations can be referred correction of dislocations, endoscopic surgery and correction of closed fractures.
Another classification of surgical interventions is the classification of goals:
- Curative.1) Radical (so a pathological organ is wholly cut-out from the organism). 2) Palliative (thanks to this operation the patient's life would be continued, but the damaged organ or a tumor remains in the body)
- Diagnostic (primary and recurrent (held on the same organ and for the same reason).
There may be various types of interference:
- Resection (removal of pathological focus)
Injuries on of the patient`s body could be categorized according to a degree of bacterial lesion. In accordance with a specific situation the surgery could be clean (aseptic), not aseptic or mattery.
In the surgeons’ lexicon is present such definition as simultaneous actions. It refers to the occasion when conducted a number of operating manipulations on a few organs at the same time over several diseases.
Combined surgery is a treatment of illnesses by the operations on divers organs. For a sample, hormone-dependent breast tumor is removed simultaneously with the sterilization of the female.
Occasionally during one surgical manipulation the surgeon wouldn`t be able to achieve his or her goals. In such case is prescribed a number of surgeries split by time. This kind of surgery is called multistage.
Stages of operative interference:
- Operative access is destined for denudation of the damaged organ and embodiment of required circumstances for realization of scheduled act. By figurative expression "it shall be as large as necessary, and as little as possible."
- Operational acceptance, i.e. the organ amputation
- Suturing of the cut
Various diseases and the sick persons` status impact on the timing within which surgical action to be taken.
- Emergency surgery. Any procrastination could worsen the condition of the ill person; reduce the quality of his later life, and even lead to death
- Fixed-term surgery. This type of surgery can’t be set aside for a long time. But the medical crew has a time to prepare
- Elective surgery. These operations are held in the most suitable moment for the ill human
Operations involve a number of diverse risks. The menace of a surgery is based on such factors as the required continuance and format of intervention, type of operation, type of principal disease, accompanying illnesses and their complexity, gender (in men the danger is always higher), age of the sick person, qualification of the anesthesiologist and the brigade, equipping of the operating room. Thus operational risk may be minor, moderate, relatively moderate, high and extreme.
Environment used during the operation shall be abided by the rules of the aseptic technique: all tools must be aseptic and tools must be substituted or re-sterilized once they touched any non-sterile surfaces. The medical personnel that are operating should wear sterilized clothing (hat, robe, sterile gloves and a surgical mask). Before the operational procedures the stuff must scrupulously cleanse their hands using a brush and a disinfectant.