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Due to the growth of living standards, typical for most people inactive lifestyle, poor nutrition with increasing amounts of refined products, permanent stress the international community in the 21st century, faced with the global health care and social issue of fattiness and overweight. According to studies of the World Health Organization, this question problem relate to almost all countries, age groups and social conditions of the population. It is not only a cosmetic defect, this is a serious violation of metabolic processes that raises the risks of many illnesses, including heart diseases, diabetes and hypertension.
In order to calculate the optimal weight and adiposity diagnosis, doctors often use the body mass index (BMI), the magnitude of the mass of a person and its growth. Body weight may be insufficient, normal or abnormal. Ideal body weight is determined by several methods:
- Brock’s formula: height in centimeters minus 100
- Bernhardt`s formula: height in centimeters multiplied by the circumference thorax and divided by 240
- BMI (the body mass index) calculated by dividing of body mass in kilos by height in centimeters squared (kg m2)
By virtue of BMI is possible to find out whether your weight corresponds to the norm:
18.6-24.9 normal body weight
26.0-29.9 excessive body weight
30.0-34.9 obesity of the first degree (+20-50% of norm)
35.0-45.0 the second degree adiposity (+50-100% of normal)
45.0 or more — a critical level than (+100% of normal)
But worth remembering that the body mass index doesn’t deducts the right amount of fatty adjournment, in some people, such as sportsmen, the mass index exceeds the norm but they do not have an excessive accumulation of tallow and as a result — corpulence.
Overweight usually results from a combination of factors, including:
- Sedentary lifeway. If you are usually static, you cannot burn enough calories a day.
- Improper nutrition and eating habits. Junk food, irregular meals (instead of 3 single food intakes just one in the evening), alcohol abuse and scarcity of portions checkup — all this bolster weight annex
- Gestation. During pregnancy, a female`s weight inevitably increases and to get rid of extra kilos after giving birth is quite problematic.
- Lack of sleep. Sleep that lasts less than 7 hours a day can lead to hormonal unbalancing and, as aftereffect, uncontrolled expansion of appetite. Also, your organism may start to call for high calorific food and foods rich in carbs; this as well increases the hazard of morbid corpulence.
- Obesity can be caused by primary disease, including Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic of the ovaries and other diseases. Some disorders, such as arthritis, promote the crossing of the boundaries of permissible mass indirectly, due to the restricting of an active mobility.
- Some medical drugs can cause problems if not counteract their action through dietary, fitness or other sports
Overweight leads to different complaints in patients: weakness, gasp, flaccidity, deteriorated health, fatigue, sleep disturbances, cephalalgia, sweating, constipation and nausea, pain in the heart, joints and so on. This disease affects almost all organs and body systems. Firstly, in very deed, it ruins the cardiovascular system. In proportion to the deepening of the problem, the heart wraps with fatty armor.
Patients with this disease are twice as likely, than those with normal weight, to be hospitalized with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease three times more frequently with hypertension, 6 times — cholelithiasis, 5 times more — diabetes, 4 times— various joint diseases. Violated the activities of the gastrointestinal tract, increases the size of the stomach and the small intestine, appetite is constantly heightened. Most of patients suffer from liver diseases, cirrhosis. A constant overload and metabolic disorders develop collapse of joints and vertebrae. Plus, changes the function of the reproductive organs: in women menstrual fickleness, sterility, there is a risk of cancer of the uterus, ovaries, and breasts. In men often occurs impotence, and there is a sad prospect of bowel and prostate cancer. Overweight in children also may cause a delay of sexual development, menstrual disorders in girls, allergies.
According to some scientists, processes caused by exaggerated weight are close to aging. Certainly, the disease drastically suppress efficiency, often leads to a disability, has a tendency to amplification, it is difficult to heal. Average life expectancy is declined by 7-12 years. It is believed that every superfluous kilo reduces life for 2 months.
How to avoid corpulence? This question worries many people whose body weight begins to disturb. The best treatment is prevention. Scientists, doctors and nutritionists say that the cause of obesity is an insufficient of the energy consumption, which as a result, starts to accumulate in the form of lipids in adipose tissue. When overweight, you must first change your diet, having made its more efficient for the body. This diet should be combined with physical activity. And choose a course of exercises, always in consultation with a specialist.
Nowadays there are techniques of medical treatment of obesity.
In severe cases medics use the surgical methods of treatment, which, according to reports, have a positive long-term effect not only in relation to the fight against obesity, but for normalizing disorders of other organs and systems.